As much as parents try to shield their children from all kinds of frightening, dangerous or life-threatening events, the reality is that these things can still happen. Even when children aren’t physically imperiled, they may still struggle with mental and emotional trauma, which can sometimes stay with them for the duration of their lives. Children living through the COVID-19 pandemic, for example, may experience trauma from being pulled out of school, being separated from friends or family members, and worrying about contracting the virus.
Childhood trauma is more common than most people imagine. In fact, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) estimates that two-thirds of all children report some kind of traumatic incident by age 16. These occurrences can lead to complicated mental health issues, but thankfully, treatment options are available to help patients of all ages deal with the lingering effects of their childhood
What Is Childhood Trauma?
The National Child Traumatic Stress Network (NCTSN) defines a traumatic event as any scary, dangerous or violent event that poses a threat to the physical safety, well-being, or bodily integrity of a child. Sometimes, traumatic events may directly involve the child. Other times, the event involves the parent, guardian, or another caregiver. Threats to the physical safety of a loved one may be just as traumatic as direct threats to the child.
These experiences can trigger strong physical and emotional responses, which may persist long after the event passes. Some children develop child traumatic stress: a visceral response to childhood trauma that may affect their daily lives and emotional well-being for years or even decades after the triggering event.
Types of Childhood Trauma
A child may experience a number of potentially traumatic events, including the following:
- Abuse (sexual, physical, psychological)
- Life-threatening accidents or illnesses
- Violence in school or the community
- Domestic violence (witnessing or experiencing)
- National disasters
- Acts of terror
- Public health crises such as COVID-19
- Loss of a loved one, especially when sudden or violent in nature
- Refugee or war experiences
Signs of Childhood Trauma
Signs of Childhood Trauma in Preschool Children
- Fear of separation from parents or guardians
- Poor eating habits and sudden weight loss
- Persistent cries or screams
Signs of Childhood Trauma in Elementary Schoolchildren
- Having feelings of guilt and shame
- Becoming fearful or anxious
- Having sleeping problems
- Having difficulty concentrating
Signs of Childhood Trauma in Middle and High School Children
- Feelings of alienation
- Eating disorders
- Self-harming behaviors
Additional Resources on the Types and Signs of Childhood Trauma
For more information on childhood trauma and its triggers and signs, consider the following resources:
- National Child Traumatic Stress Network, Trauma Types. Explore some of the specific types and triggers of childhood trauma.
- Child Mind Institute, Signs of Trauma in Children. Learn more about how to recognize when a child has experienced something traumatic.
- com, Child Trauma FAQs. Get answers to some of the most common questions about the trauma that children experience.
- Head Start Early Childhood Learning and Knowledge Center, Signs and Symptoms of Childhood Trauma. Take a closer look at common signs of trauma.
How Childhood Trauma Impacts Mental Health and Wellness
Each traumatic experience is unique, and thus childhood trauma impacts its victims in different ways. With that said, traumatic experiences can often have effects on a child that linger through adolescence and adulthood.
Developing Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
Most children are exposed to a traumatic event at some point, and while these incidents usually result in at least momentary distress, some children return to normal functioning within a short time. In the most extreme cases, however, a traumatic event can lead to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). According to the National Center for PTSD, up to 15% of girls and 6% of boys develop PTSD following a traumatic event.
PTSD is a mental health condition that can impact children in different ways. Some children find themselves replaying the traumatic incident in their minds, relieving the stress and agony. Others reenact the traumatic incident in their play. Still, others avoid any person or situation that might remind them of their trauma. Some children may also believe that they missed warning signs about the traumatic incident and therefore become hypervigilant to the point of obsession.
Children with PTSD may experience a range of symptoms, including the following:
- Anger and increased aggression
- Mistrust of others
- Low self-image
- Self-harming behaviors
Other Effects of Childhood Trauma
Even children who don’t exhibit the signs of PTSD can still struggle with various behavioral issues following a traumatic event. Some examples are:
- Difficulty focusing or paying attention
- Changes in eating habits
- New fears or phobias
- Increased obsession with safety
- Increased focus on death and dying
- Insomnia and fitful sleeping
- Loss of interest in usual hobbies and activities
When left untreated, childhood trauma can have effects that last into adulthood.
- According to Psychology Today, traumatic experiences “can burrow down deep into the body, contributing to chronic illness.” Data from a 2019 survey showed a strong correlation between unresolved trauma and the risk of cancer.
- Childhood trauma that involves sexual abuse can lead to long-term sexual dysfunction, including a higher likelihood of sexually risky behaviors.
- Trauma can also lead to long-term cognitive difficulties and academic challenges. Children who have gone through trauma “may show deficits in language development and abstract reasoning skills,” says the NCTSN. “Many children who have experienced complex trauma have learning difficulties that may require support in the academic environment.”
Additional Resources on the Mental Health Effects of Childhood Trauma
To learn more about the link between childhood trauma and mental health and wellness, consider these resources:
- Harvard Health Publishing, Past Trauma May Haunt Your Future Health. Find out more about the ongoing effects of trauma.
- Psychology Today, “4 Ways That Childhood Trauma Impacts Adults”. Discover more about the ways trauma lingers into adulthood.
- Verywell Mind, “Treating the Effects of Childhood Trauma”. Explore some of the ways trauma can affect children throughout their lives.
- Population Reference Bureau, “Childhood Trauma Has Lifelong Consequences for Women”. Consider how women, in particular, can be affected by traumatic experiences.
Strategies for Addressing Childhood Trauma
While the effects of childhood trauma can be long-lasting, multiple strategies are available to those who’ve experienced trauma, allowing them to address their trauma, recover from it and live a healthy life. Mental health professionals, including psychiatric nurse practitioners, can work with their patients to identify the best recovery strategies.
One way to deal with childhood trauma is to speak with a counselor or therapist. Those who’ve gone through trauma often internalize blame and guilt, potentially leading to low self-esteem. A counselor can help patients allocate blame more judiciously, develop the skill sets required for self-compassion, and learn other skills to grapple with weighty or complicated emotions.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Following a traumatic episode, children sometimes develop negative behavioral or emotional responses as a way to cope with their trauma. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is an evidence-based approach to unlearning these negative responses, training the brain to deal with trauma, stress, and grief in a healthier, more productive way.
Mindfulness meditation may not be the best solution for everyone, but in some cases, it can provide an opportunity to increase present-moment awareness, as opposed to constantly dwelling on the past. Additionally, mindfulness meditation may increase self-compassion and also improve the individual’s ability to self-regulate (that is, the ability to keep one’s emotions in check).
In some cases, a psychiatric nurse practitioner or other medical professional may recommend medications to help cope with some of the effects of childhood trauma. Antianxiety medications and antidepressants may both be viable options, depending on the patient’s specific symptoms.
Additional Resources on Strategies for Recovering from Childhood Trauma
To find out more about the best ways to deal with childhood trauma, take a look at the following resources:
- National Child Traumatic Stress Network, Interventions. Get more information about clinical interventions for health issues related to trauma.
- Boston Children’s Hospital, Treatments for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Children. Find out how medical professionals treat childhood PTSD.
- Verywell Mind, “Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Kids”. Learn about the benefits of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT) for treating PTSD in children.
Resources on Childhood Trauma
For children and the parents of children who’ve experienced traumatic events, the following resources may provide insight, support and clinical solutions:
- net, PTSD Hotline. Find out more about the benefits of calling a PTSD hotline, and get direct help from mental health professionals.
- National Child Traumatic Stress Network, Get Help Now. Connect with a crisis hotline to help address mental health issues.
- National Child Traumatic Stress Network, COVID-19 Resources. View fact sheets, webinars and other resources for recognizing and coping with childhood trauma caused by the COVID-19 pandemic.
- Child Mind Institute, Trauma and Resilience Service. Get resources to aid in understanding childhood trauma.
- PTSD Alliance, PTSD Alliance Members. Consult organizations that offer support to those who’ve been through a traumatic experience.
- GoodTherapy, “7 Ways to Help a Child Heal from Trauma”. Find out what parents can do to help their children recover from a traumatic experience.
Moving Forward from Trauma
Traumatic incidents are all too common and can have long-lasting effects on the children who experience them. The right intervention from a mental health professional, however, makes it possible not only to move forward from trauma but also to live a healthy, fulfilling life.
Experiencing childhood trauma was a statistically significant predictor of whether they would graduate from college (b = − 0.29, p ≤ 0.001). The higher the number of trauma events experienced, the less likely the participant was to graduate from college.How does childhood trauma affect academic performance? ›
According to the National Child Traumatic Stress Network, chronic exposure to traumatic events, especially during a child's early years, can: Adversely affect attention, memory, and cognition. Reduce a child's ability to focus, organize, and process information. Interfere with effective problem solving and planning.How childhood trauma affects your future? ›
Adults with histories of trauma in childhood have been shown to have more chronic physical conditions and problems. They may engage in risky behaviors that compound these conditions (e.g., smoking, substance use, and diet and exercise habits that lead to obesity).What are the effects of childhood trauma in adulthood study? ›
Trauma's Effect on Stability, Guilt and Shame
This trauma can also impact a person into adulthood as they experience feelings of shame and guilt, feeling disconnected and unable to relate to others, trouble controlling emotions, heightened anxiety and depression, anger.